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Research Report: A Comparative Study on Hybrid Learning in Schools
Place of publication | Year of publication | Collation: 
Geneva | 2024 | 226 p.
Corporate author: 
UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE)

During the COVID-19 lockdown, policymakers and educators faced an unprecedented challenge disrupting all levels of education. The initial optimism about replacing physical classes with virtual lessons diminished as complex interconnected issues emerged. To address the need for continuous and sustainable learning, school systems implemented variations of hybrid learning during the pandemic, seeking to integrate physical and virtual classes. These approaches prompted this comparative study led by UNESCO-IBE.


The initial phase of this study involved collecting and analysing data on hybrid strategies from six countries. The research aimed to examine factors influencing hybrid learning implementation during the lockdown, with a subsequent focus on developing and validating a practical Hybrid Learning Framework for Schools. The cross-case analysis was designed not to rank or compare, but to understand and connect different scenarios and contexts. Phase I focuses on current hybrid learning practices and influencing factors, while Phases II and III will concentrate on using the information gathered to create and validate a Hybrid Learning Framework for Schools.


Aligned with UNESCO-IBE’s overarching vision of a comprehensive, personalized, and democratized curriculum accessible to all, hybrid learning facilitates inclusive education across diverse regions, overcoming geographical and temporal limitations. The approach aims to unlock the unique potential of every learner, fostering a more flexible educational environment.

Resource Type: 
Research papers / journal articles
Diversity / cultural literacy / inclusive
Sustainable development / sustainability
Media & information literacy / digital citizenship
Transformative initiatives / Transformative pedagogies
Level of education: 
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
Primary education
Secondary education
Higher education
Lifelong learning
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET)
Non-formal education
Blended learning
Hybrid learning
comparative education